The chemical analysis of the surface of the HSS treated plant highlights the absence of contaminating elements, and in particular of the alumina used for sandblasting (present on the surfaces only sanded), and the presence of hydrated titanium phosphate oxide, introducing through HSS treatment.
This type of oxide promotes cell adhesion by osteoblasts, with consequent increase in the quality of osseointegration.
The HSS treatment also has a positive influence on the wettability of the implant surface. In the following images it is possible to notice the greater wettability of the surface of a HSS treated plant compared to the sandblasted surface only.
The contact angle of the cell culture serum passes from 55 ° for the sanded surface to only 38 ° for the HSS treated surface. This parameter is an index of the rate of protein absorption that will then affect cell adhesion and consequently on osseointegration.